"Sakura" redirects here. For other characters using the name "Sakura", see Sakura (disambiguation).
Sakura in the manga
|Also Known As||Sakura Avalon (Cardcaptors)|
Kaijuu (monster) (by Toya)
Kinomoto-san (by Meiling)
|Age||9 (beginning of the manga)|
12 (end of the manga)
9 (1st season, 1st movie)
10 (2nd & 3rd season)
11 (2nd movie)
|Relations||Fujitaka Kinomoto (father)|
Nadeshiko Kinomoto (mother, deceased)
Toya Kinomoto (older brother)
Tomoyo Daidouji (2nd cousin)
Sonomi Daidouji (1st cousin once removed)
Masaki Amamiya (great grandfather)
Clow Reed (distant ancestor)
|Powers||Seal the Clow Cards (1st and 2nd seasons)|
Create Sakura/Star Cards (3rd season)
Exceptionally strong good luck
153 cm (2nd & 3rd season)
158 cm (final film)
163 cm (at the end of the manga)
|Episode 1: "Sakura and the Mysterious Magic Book"|
|Cardcaptor Sakura Movie 2: The Sealed Card|
|English||Carly McKillip (Cardcaptors)|
Kari Wahlgren (2nd movie)
Andrea Kwan (Animax)
Sakura Kinomoto (木之本 さくら, Kinomoto Sakura) is a fictional character, the heroine and main protagonist of CLAMP's anime and manga series Cardcaptor Sakura. Sakura has an alternate existence in Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle. She is also briefly mentioned in another CLAMP title ×××HOLiC.
Sakura's given name (桜) means "cherry blossom" in Japanese while her surname, Kinomoto (木之本), literally means "the origin of wood".
In the English dub of the anime series, titled Cardcaptors, Sakura was originally going to be called "Nikki", but Nelvana kept her given name because of the reception of the Cardcaptors adaptation and the difficulty and expense of editing out numerous appearances of her name in romaji in the series. Her family name was changed to "Avalon". The pronunciation of her given name changed, as stress is put on the middle syllable ku, while in Japanese, the accent is on sa and the ku is very quick, almost silent. Nelvana purposefully changed the pronunciation of the name since many English names have stress on the middle syllable.
In the anime, Sakura has short, honey brown hair, fair skin, and emerald green eyes. In certain manga sketches and official artwork, this sometimes changes. In addition to her anime hair and eyes, her hair is sometimes colored auburn, her eyes are sometimes colored grey or blue, and her skin is sometimes snow white. As a child, she is naturally short in height, but slowly grows as the years pass by.
Sakura's outfits change frequently throughout the series. Her most commonly worn outfit is her school uniform, which changes depending on the season. Her winter school uniform is a black long sleeved shirt with red and white sleevecuffs, a white neckerchief with a red stripe, and a white pleated miniskirt with a frilly white knee-length petticoat. On particularly cold days, she wears a thick black coat with her schools insignia on the back. Her summer uniform is a white half-sleeved shirt with a red neckerchief and a black pleated miniskirt. All year round, black shoes are worn along with a white sailor hat with a black trim.
Sakura is an extremely energetic, cute, beautiful, sweet, cheerful and very kind character. She is very athletic, being a member of her school's cheerleading squad and an excellent runner, a trait she inherited from her father.  Her "invincible spell", "Everything will surely be all right." (「絶対大丈夫だよ。」 "Zettai daijōbu da yo."), has carried her through innumerable trials and obstacles as she masters her magical skills. Her catchphrase is "Hoe!" (usually stretched), which is used whenever she is shocked or scared even the slightest. She also frequently shouts "KERO, NO!!!", when scolding Kero.
She often comes across as naïve, clumsy, dense and clueless, but she has her perceptive moments on occasion. Her favorite foods are omelet and noodles with seafood and her favorite recipe is pancakes. Her birthday is on April the first. She hates Mathematics, loves Gym and Music, and her blood type is A.
Sakura's optimistic and trustworthy character allows her to be friendly with everybody, she is very outgoing and the entire series focuses on the friendships she creates with people, whether strangers, loose acquaintances, or rivals. In fact, her personality is a dominating factor in her relationships, especially with Syaoran Li. Though sometimes she's quite gullible and believes what everyone tells her. Her charm can win over anyone (as shown with Syaoran in the series) and she's very scared of ghosts.
She became scared of ghosts because her brother, who could see spirits, would usually point them out. Though she couldn't see them, the descriptions of having 'one eye' or 'missing a hand' would frighten her. Therefore she felt a deep fear of ghosts from a young age. Ironically, she has no fear of Clow Cards. This is apparent when Sakura finds out that the ghost in the park is actually a Clow Card and was no longer scared by it. She is known to be clueless about things relating to herself but perceptive of others. Though when she finds out information about her friends she usually keeps quiet about it.
Despite her sweet nature, cuteness and beauty, Sakura has been shown to have a very vicious temper. This is often seen when Toya insults her by calling her a monster and once when she and Kero got into a fight. Her temper is sometimes so vicious that it once scared Toya.
Whilst Sakura retains most of her personality, she loses some traits such as her crush on Yukito, though it is briefly touched on at times, and later Syaoran, which is turned into admiration and overall friendliness. The fact that she and Tomoyo are cousins is omitted in Cardcaptors. She also appears to be somewhat braver and more determined as a Cardcaptor. She also seems to have a meaner attitude due to the dub making it more like how kids would act like in real life, not in an anime.
Clow Card Arc
Sakura Card Arc
Clear Card Arc
Syaoran LiThe most notable relationship in the series is between Sakura and Syaoran Li, largely due to the second half of the series being heavily devoted to its development.
Their first encounter was on Syaoran's first day in Tomoeda Elementary School. Before they were properly introduced, Sakura was baffled to find Syaoran glaring at her and giving her hateful glances. He later confronts her, where he demands that she surrender the Clow Cards to him. When she refuses to give them to him, Syaoran attempts to take them from her by force. Sakura's brother, Toya, intervenes before their fight could escalate. Following these events, Sakura and Syaoran's relationship was strained for quite a while and despite her many attempts to befriend him, he was cold and dismissive towards her. Syaoran often ridiculed Sakura as he believed she was unworthy of the Clow Cards, She, however refused to retaliate and was kind to him. Like many other characters in the story, Syaoran gravitated to her gentle nature and they eventually became friends.
An important turn in their relationship occurs when the Earthy reveals itself in the manga chapter entitled "The Power of the Elements", where Sakura falls into a deep crevice created by the card. Running to save her, Syaoran yells out to her, calling her by her first name.  After being rescued by Cerberus, Sakura returns this by asking if she can start calling him "Syaoran-kun". This is paralleled in the anime where, in episode 57, Tomoyo, Syaoran, Eriol, Sakura take a visit to a teddy bear museum. (The journey through the museum is accompanied by the song Ki Ni Naru Aitsu or That Girl I Can't Ignore, sung by his voice actress, Kumai Motoko). This is followed by a scene in an elevator between Syaoran and Sakura where events similar to those centered around the Earth card occur. Syaoran screams out Sakura's name here when she falls into a hole. Sakura later gets herself to safety by changing the Float Card and then tells him she heard this, and asks if she can call him "Syaoran-kun" instead of the more neutral "Li-kun".
Throughout the series, Syaoran gradually becomes more committed to caring for Sakura romantically, most especially after Yue forces him to confront his feelings early on in the second story arc, but she remains completely oblivious of his feelings. Syaoran's blushes become more frequent, and there are some occasions where he would suddenly become clumsy when in her presence. Sakura will either keep an innocent smile on her face or look confused and worried at Syaoran whenever he trips and falls. It is not certain when Sakura's feelings for Syaoran progress into romantic, but it is hinted to been when he comforted her after Yukito rejected her.
When Sakura confesses her feelings to Yukito, only to have them turned down because Yukito is in love with Sakura's older brother, Toya, Syaoran is there to comfort her in the park afterward. It is a very emotional period in the series, but she is able to recover, thanks to Syaoran being there to help her get her emotions out. To give thanks, she spends a week making him a scarf. Similarly, in the manga, Sakura returns the favor by spending a week making him a yukata which she gives to him after he agrees to accompany her to a festival although he is concerned when she shows up to school, wearing bandages.
Sakura is finally made aware of Syaoran's feelings when he personally confesses them near the end of the series, after the final battle with Eriol Hiiragizawa. The news comes as a complete shock to her, and it is ever present in her thoughts over the next few days. After talking to her friends about why she is upset and confused about her feelings, she recognizes that she may love Syaoran as more than a friend. She goes to his house to speak with him, only to discover that he is returning to Hong Kong. She is heartbroken and cries, saying to herself that she doesn't want him to leave. This leads her to conclude that Syaoran is her true "number one person," and she hurries home to make him a teddy bear before she confesses her newfound feelings as Syaoran suddenly leaves for Hong Kong (though only temporarily). He asks her to wait for his return and she promises because she loves him the most.
Two years later, they reunite as a couple. The anime stretches out the suspense, with Sakura not yet answering Syaoran in the last episode of the series. Instead, her confession comes at the end of the second movie, after several failed attempts throughout the film.
The teddy bears (seen in the above picture) are named Sakura and Syaoran, respectively, referring to a fictional tradition where if two people make teddy bears for each other and the recipients name them after their donors, the two will be a couple forever. In the manga, Sakura and Syaoran name their bears after each other after she confesses her love to him. However this is slightly changed in the anime, where, Syaoran gives Sakura his bear (she asks to have it) in Episode 70, but Sakura never gives him one, having already given it to Yukito earlier in the series.
In the second movie, four months after Syaoran's departure, Sakura expresses her wish to confess her feelings to him to Tomoyo. Unbeknownst to her, Syaoran returns to Japan with his cousin Meiling Li who was having secret phone calls with Tomoyo who helped plan their return. Tomoyo and Meiling organized outings for Sakura to tell Syaoran about how she feels but, rather amusingly, she gets constantly interrupted by Kero, Toya and the awakening of the Nothing Card. During the final battle with the latter, She traps Sakura between two gaps on a tower's staircase. Sakura manages to convince her of her wrongdoings with the help of the other 52 cards. As Sakura changes the card into a Sakura card, ready to lose her most precious feeling as the price for sealing it, she regrets not being able to tell Syaoran how she felt. However, the card chooses Syaoran instead, who arrives in the nick of time, as he had more magical energy left. Sakura, unable to reach Syaoran, could only watch as the Nothing took it's effect on Syaoran. However, the effects of the Nothing card was successfully negated by the Nameless card, turning it into the Hope card. Sakura confesses her love believing that Syaoran had forgotten his own . She begins to cry but Syaoran surprisingly replies he loves her too, meaning he had not lost his most important feeling. As the sun rises, the damage done by the Nothing card starts to fade away. However,Sakura is so overjoyed by the revelation, that she uses the Jump card to recklessly leap across the gap to reach Syaoran, despite his pleas to wait for the stairs to return. The film ends on a cliffhanger with Sakura halfway through the air, but a still image released with the film shows that she makes the leap, right into Syaoran's arms. The manga concludes the development of their relationship differently, as there is no movie for which to create a cliffhanger. Instead, after a major battle, as in the anime, Syaoran finds a quiet moment in Penguin Park to confess his love to Sakura. Sakura, again, is left in a mild state of shock as she tries to absorb the words, while Syaoran, content after revealing his feelings, tells her to be careful going back home and then leaves. The rest of the volume of the Cardcaptor Sakura is focused on Sakura trying to work out her feelings for Syaoran. Many people play a role in this.
Eriol Hiiragizawa: Eriol tells her that when someone else tells her they are moving away think of how she feels about Eriol moving away, and how it is different to when the other person leaves. He is referring to Syaoran.
Tomoyo Daidoji: Sakura confides in Tomoyo about Syaorans confession who proceeds to tell her that the answer is inside her, she just has to take the time to realize it. Sakura thanks her and leaves.
Chiharu Mihara: Takashi and Chiharu sees Sakura looking sad, so he leaves to get some juice to let Chiharu talk to her. Sakura asks Chiharu what she does if she upsets Takashi. Chiharu tells her that she Apologizes because she loves him and he loves her he will want to say "It's fine" and vice versa. Takashi returns and Sakura thanks Chiharu then running off thinking that she has to apologise to Syaoran
Rika Sasaki: After finding out about Syaoran moving back to hong Kong, Sakura runs into Rika in a fit of tears. She asks her what is wrong and Sakura asks her about her boyfriend that she doesn't get to see very often. Rika asks her whether she won't get to see the one she likes and Sakura replies by saying she won't be able to see him for a very long time. Rika tells her that she is happy to have the time they can spend together and is greatful for it. She tells her not to worry and Sakura runs off to her house.
After confiding in them Sakura runs home to make a bear for Syaoran, Kero offers to help but she tells him she has to do it by herself. Yukito brings her some food up, telling her that Toya made it, but is too shy to bring it up to her and is freaking out downstairs. He asks if the bear is for that one special person. She nods but then tells him that, that person is going far away and they won't be able to see each other. He tells her that he would be upset if he disappeared and wouldn't be able to see Toya and that he would do anything to stop himself from disappearing. Sakura finishes the bear in the morning and receives and phone call from Tomoyo telling her that the plane was leaving at ten. She runs downstairs and Toya offers her a lift to the bus stop. She runs after the bus and confesses to Syaoran handing him the bear. He asks her if he can name it Sakura, and she asks can she name hers Syaoran. They both agree. After asking if she will wait for him, she shouts that she will.
A cherry tree is shown and two years have passed: Sakura (now 14), dressed in her new Tomoeda School uniform and handing a small case, is putting on her shoes in a hurry as she will be late for school (again) and Toya would complain. Running across the know cherry trees way, she suddenly stops as she sees something - or someone.
Syaoran is right in front of her, wearing his own new Tomoeda uniform, carrying a case with one hand and holding Sakura's Bear on the other. He says he has finished his paperwork in Hong Kong and came to stay. She asks if they will not have to exchange phone calls and letters to communicate, and he agrees.
While they hug each other, Sakura, emotional with joy, says that from now on they will stay together forever.
In xxxHOLiC, it is revealed by Yuko that Sakura is living with Syaoran.
Yukito TsukishiroIn the first half of the series, before any hint of a relationship with Syaoran, Sakura's primary romantic focus was on Yukito Tsukishiro, a friend of her brother, Toya.
On a class trip in the fourth volume, Sakura reveals to Syaoran that her crush on Yukito began when Toya brought Yukito home on the day Yukito transferred to Toya's school.
Yukito's presence always causes a significant effect on Sakura's feelings, commonly provoking her "floaty" exclamation, "Hanyaan~" (はにゃあん～). Unlike Syaoran, who is attracted to Yukito because of his power and ability related to the moon, Sakura truly loves Yukito.
Sakura always does her best to impress Yukito, on rare occasions even competing with Syaoran to give the better compliment or gift. She often looks forward to going to school with Yukito each day, and she is worried when he is not there. Most times when her brother, Toya, is present, Sakura is often provoked to raise her voice or else act "unladylike" at Toya, which immediately elicits her embarrassment when she realizes Yukito is also there watching her.
Late in the series, Sakura finally decides to confess her love to Yukito instead of forever skirting around the issue. However, Yukito does not return the feelings, admitting that he loves her also but only in a platonic way. He asks her to reevaluate her feelings towards him and suggests that she feels attached to him more because he resembles her father. Sakura agrees with Yukito after some thought, and he continues to reassure her by saying that the real "number one person" for her is still out there somewhere, and she should not give up searching for him.
After an emotional afternoon in the park, Sakura is able to get over Yukito but still remaining a close friend through the end of the series. She, in a rare perceptive moment, also realizes that Yukito's feelings have always been aimed towards her brother, Toya. She accepts that fact, also, and wishes them the best.
Interestingly, in the last book of the manga (episode 70 of the anime), Eriol Hiiragizawa reveals to Yue that when Clow Reed chose Sakura as the future new Master of the Clow Cards and their guardians, he had expected that in the future Yukito would love Sakura more than anyone else and vice versa. Yukito's feelings for Toya and Syaoran's feelings for Sakura were the unforeseen occurrences, a few of the deviations from Clow's plan, that Eriol mentions to Sakura and friends at the party in Clow's mansion.
Though non-romantic, Sakura's close relationship with Tomoyo Daidouji is likely the second most significant relationship in the series. Sakura and Tomoyo are best friends (and second cousins as their mothers were cousins), meeting randomly for the first time in the third grade when Sakura offered Tomoyo one of her erasers which Tomoyo has kept. Since then, Tomoyo has been very attentive to everything that Sakura does, including finding a passion for filming her throughout her daily activities.
Sakura holds a lot of trust in Tomoyo, often allowing her to take lots of measurements for the multitude of battle costumes and dresses that are made for her. Tomoyo is also one of the few keepers of Sakura's secret as the Cardcaptor, often accompanying Sakura in many of her adventures for filming and costume-testing opportunities. In the second half of the series, when Sakura gets a new wand and mission, Tomoyo is responsible for choreographing Sakura's new action poses.
Tomoyo holds a special, arguably romantic attachment, to Sakura, of which Sakura is completely oblivious. In both the manga and anime, Tomoyo admits that she loves Sakura, but Sakura replies innocently, "I love you, too," in the platonic sense. (This is emphasized using manga conventions: Tomoyo declares her love against a background of flowers, while Sakura replies against a blank white background). The manga takes the scene further where Tomoyo comments that her love is more than what she is thinking it is. Sakura gives a confused look, but Tomoyo drops the topic, adding, "I'll tell you when you're older." However in the anime series she is shown to have a more of a romantic relation, though Clamp probably never meant it to be any sort of a sexual love, the whole relationship was left out in the English version . Throughout the series, Sakura never realizes this deeper attachment, simply remaining Tomoyo's best friend. Tomoyo, however, selflessly does not mind this at all and even helps Sakura most times in setting up situations with Yukito and Syaoran, as Tomoyo understands they are the ones who would make Sakura the happiest.
Because Tomoyo lacks magical powers and abilities, Sakura takes on a protective responsibility most times when capturing or transforming cards. If Tomoyo is ever in danger (or missing), Sakura will be the one concerned for her most, and her focus changes from that of the Card at hand to Tomoyo's safety. Fortunately, Sakura has always succeeded and hugs Tomoyo warmly whenever she reunites with her.
Clamp has stated that the image to the right is Tomoyo fixing Sakura's hair, however, it is often seen to have a romantic element to it as the expressions and pose resemble two people about to kiss.
Powers and Abilities
Power Level: Throughout the Clow Card arc, Keroberos's comments seem to imply that Sakura's magical powers and abilities strengthen and increase to even higher levels as she battles and captures more Cards. In contrast of this, in the second half of the series, Sakura’s inexperience is shown as she often collapses after transforming the cards.  However, as she becomes progressively proficient in changing Clow Cards into Sakura Cards, she becomes less tired and more aware of Clow Reed's presence. During the last of Eriol's trials, she is able to transform the last remaining eight Clow Cards into Sakura Cards at once, finally surpassing Clow and resulting in Sakura becoming the most powerful magician on the planet. However, the events of Tsubasa seem to indicate that Clow's powers are still greater than hers.
Origin: After the Final Judgement, Clow Reed tells her that her magic seems to be drawn from the power and ability of the stars, which may start small, but are ever-shining with their own brilliant light. However, it should be noted that like Clow Reed's magic, Sakura's is a balance of sun and moon magic.
Prophetic Dreams: Sakura is able to see future events through her dreams, including the Final Judgement and meeting various characters throughout the series. In the manga Sakura also dreams about the past, including the day Clow died. However it may be that these dreams were due to Clow's magic. It is noted at the end of the manga that if she wishes Sakura could see into the future.
Clow Cards: Sakura's main weapon is the Clow Cards, which first had their own magic, but had to be transformed so that they would draw power from Sakura.
- Chant to release the Sealing Wand.
- O key that conceals the power of darkness, reveal your true nature to me, by my power, I command you release!
- Key that hides the power of the dark, show your true form before me. I, Sakura, command you under our contract. Release!
- Key that hides the power of darkness, reveal your true powers before me. I, Sakura, command you under our contract. Release!
- Key that hides the forces of darkness, show me your true form! By the covenant, I, Sakura, command you. Release!
- Oh Key of Clow, power of magic power of light surrender the wand, the force ignite, Release!
- Key Of Clow! Power Of Magic, Power Of Light, Surrender The Wand. The force Ignite! Release!
- Chant to release the Star Wand.
- O Key that hides the power of the stars, reveal your true power before me. I, Sakura command you under our contract. Release!
- Key that hides the power of the stars, show your true form before me. I, Sakura, command you under our contract. Release!
- O Key that conceals the power of my star, reveal your true nature to me, by my power I command you! Release!
- By the power of the stars! Staff of power made by Clow, reveal to me your true form now! Release!
- Key of the star, with powers burning bright reveal the staff and shine your light, Release!
- Chant to transform a Clow Card into a Sakura Card.
- Card created by Clow, abandon your old form and reincarnate, under the name of Sakura, your new master!
- Card created by Clow, leave your old form and reincarnate, in the name of your new master, Sakura!
- Card originally created by Clow. Abandon your old form and reincarnate, under the name of your new master Sakura!
- I call upon the powers of my star, Ancient forces near and far, Clow card transform all your might and draw your power from my light, Star card!
- I call upon the powers of my star, Ancient forces near and far, Clow cards discard your former might and draw your power from my light, Star cards!
- Chant to release the New Wand.
- O Key that burns with the power of Dreams, reveal your true nature before me! Release!
Appearances in other media
In a later chapter she is mentioned again this time by Kimihiro Watanuki. Saying that there's another Sakura and Syaoran in the same world as Watanuki's (Referring to Sakura Kinomoto and her lover Syaoran Li) while holding onto Sakura's Staff. Further Stating that it would be nice if he could meet the two of them one day.
Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle
Sakura makes a cameo appearance in Tsubasa Chronicle: Tokyo Revelations as a spirit who guided Princess Sakura back to the group.
- Two characters who greatly resemble Tomoyo and Sakura are seen in episode ? of Gunslinger Girl.
- Two characters who resemble Sakura and Tomoyo also make a cameo appearance in episode DP077 of the Pokémon anime.
- The main female character in Kimi ga Nozomu Eien greatly resembles Sakura.
- She makes a cameo appearences in episode 1 of the anime Puni Puni Poemi.
- The magic staff (stick) of Sakura makes a cameo appearences in episode 47 of Keroro Gunsō.
- In Macademi Wasshoi! episode 8 in the beginning she makes a cameo appearences as a doll.
- Kiri Kikiyo from Canvas 2: Niji Iro no Sketch greatly resembles an older version of Sakura.
Sakura has achieved notable popularity in Japan. In both 1999 and 2000 she won the Animage Grand Prix for Best Female Character. She also won the Anime Saimoe Tournament 2002.
- Has the same English (Kari Wahlgren) and Japanese (Sakura Tange) voice actress as Kasumi from Dead or Alive video game series.
- Coincidentally, she and her Japanese voice share the name "Sakura".
- Sakura's surname, "Kinomoto" has the Kanji for "book" in it (本). This may be a joke as to her adventures with the Clow Cards that all started when she found the Clow book in her father's library.
- Sometimes, during cheerleading practice, especially during baton throwing, Sakura will occassionally get distracted, causing the baton to hit her on the head which seems to be a running gag in the series.
- Often skates to school and has her own custom-made rollarblades and gloves with her name on them.
- In Greek Dub, her name was changed to Nicky although her name on the cards or her gloves wasn't changed.
- Her name was originally going to be changed to Nikki in English, but this was decided against.
- Whenever she's distracted or shocked, she says "Hoeeee!" which is what she says in the Tokyopop manga although it's later changed to "Phwee?".
- As stated in the first chapter of the original manga series,
- Sakura is said to like music and gym class.
- Sakura is said to dislike math (although later on in the manga, she states that she's starting to get the hang of it).
- She is on the cheer squad.
- Her favorite foods are rice omelets and noodles.
- She dislikes Konnyaku.
- Her favorite colors are pink and white.
- Has a good recipe for pancakes.
- Would like a new school bag.
- That cheerfulness is one of her best quailties.
- Since Fujitaka Kinomoto is one-half of the re-incarnation of Clow Reed, meaning that, Sakura is related to him, and through that, is related to Syaoran Li, but because Clow is a long anscestor of Syaoran they would be hardly related at all, and this only applies to the manga, as in the anime, her father is not a re-incarnation of Clow.
- In the manga, Sakura is said to be the key to preventing a disaster, although it is later revealed that the trial with Yue and Eriol's actions are not the disaster which Clow predicted.
- One possibility is that the disaster refers to the events of Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle: Sakura had to give the Star Wand to Sakura Li in order for "Syaoran" to travel to Clow Country. Without Sakura giving the Star Wand to her alternate self, "Syaoran" would not have been able to stop Fei Wang Reed's plans.